International conference “Researching with Integrity”
International conference “Researching with Integrity”
10th of February 2017 in the Main Building of the University of Tartu
(Ülikooli 18, Tartu)
Organisers: The conference is organised by the Centre for Ethics, University of Tartu in cooperation with the Estonian Research Council. It is supported by the University of Tartu Development Fund and the European Commission funded Horizon 2020 project “Promoting Integrity as an Integral Dimension of Excellence in Research” (PRINTEGER). The conference takes place in the framework of the National Programme “Values Development in Estonian Society 2009–2013” for the years 2015–2020, funded by the Ministry of Education and Research.
Theme: The conference Researching with Integrity is centred on defining misconduct and dubious practices, and their differentiation from good research. An increasing number of cases of extreme misconduct in research have been revealed internationally. This has caused a decline in the reliability of research. This has alerted Estonian universities and research institutions, and they ask how to prevent the cases of misconduct in research and how to resolve complaints.
It is becoming increasingly difficult to orientate in the rules of research ethics; therefore, the mere wish to be ethical is not sufficient. Researchers want to be sure that their research meets both international and local requirements and is in accordance with good practice. To meet the changing requirements and find answers to the arising questions, researchers expect universities and research institutions to create support and counselling systems within the organisations.
To meet these challenges, the Estonian good practice of research is being drafted. Initiated by the Estonian Research Council, a work group was formed, which includes representatives of Estonian universities, the Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Education and Research. The work group trusted the Centre for Ethics at the University of Tartu with writing the text of the good practice of research. Interactive workshops and a panel discussion at the conference offer researchers an opportunity to have their say in the creation of the Estonian good practice of research and to discuss what kind of conduct is recommendable, permitted or condemnable in research.
In addition, the conference on 10 February seeks answers to the following questions:
• What is the European good practice of research that is being drafted like?
• Why does Estonia need to formulate its own good practice of research?
• Which principles of research ethics does the European Commission expect researchers to be guided by?
• How to define misconduct, dubious practices and good research? Where is the border between the black, white and grey areas?
• How do different rules and organisational culture influence researchers’ ethical conduct?
• How to promote research integrity?
9:15–10:00 Registration, coffee
10:00–10:10 Opening by Prof Margit Sutrop, Head of the Centre for Ethics, University of Tartu
10:10–10:20 Greetings: Karin Jaanson, Executive Director of the Estonian Research Council
10:20–10:30 Greetings: Dr Marco Kirm, Vice Rector for Research, University of Tartu
I session: Research Integrity at the European Level
10:30–11:10 Establishing a European Research Integrity Community: Current Activities Under Horizon 2020, Dr Isidoros Karatzas, Head of the Ethics and Research Integrity Sector, European Commission, DG Research & Innovation
11:10–11:50 National Guidelines and a European Code of Conduct on Research Integrity: What Are They For? Prof Krista Varantola, Chair of the National Advisory Board on Research Integrity in Finland and a member of the ALLEA workgroup on science and ethics
II session: Practical Questions of Research Integrity
12:45–13:25 Benefits and Challenges of Defining Misconduct, Dr Daniele Fanelli, Senior Research Scientists at the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS), Stanford University
13:25–14:05 Working with Research Integrity in Organisations, Prof Eric Breit, Research Professor at the Work Research Institute, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway
14:05–14:30 Coffee break
III session: Estonian Code of Conduct for Research Integrity
14:30–15:00 Why do we need Estonian Code of Conduct for Research Integrity? Prof Margit Sutrop, Centre for Ethics, University of Tartu
15:00–16:00 Panel discussion: Why do we need Estonian Code of Conduct for Research Integrity? Chair: Prof Toivo Maimets, Director of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology
Participants: Prof Ülle Jaakma, Vice Rector for Research, Estonian University of Life Sciences; Prof Margus Lopp, Member of the Board of Governors of the Tallinn University of Technology; Prof Katrin Niglas, Vice Rector for Research, Tallinn University, Prof Margus Pärtlas, Vice Rector for Academic Affairs and Research, Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, Dr Siret Rutiku, Head of the Department of Research Funding, Estonian Research Council; Dr Andres Soosaar, Academic Secretary, University of Tartu
16:00–17:30 Workshops: Discussions of the Estonian Code of Conduct for Research Integrity in groups (both in Estonian and in English)
17:30 Reception in the University of Tartu Art Museum
Dr Isidoros Karatzas is the Head of the Ethics and Research Integrity Sector, European Commission, DG Research & Innovation. Dr Isidoros Karatzas is a biochemist by training. He was a Science Programme (the precursor to the Marie Curie programme) research fellow. After joining the European Commission, he was responsible for the evaluation of the framework programmes and participated in setting up the European Network on RTD Evaluation. Consequently he managed the risk governance research file and was the scientific secretary of the European Research Advisory Board (EURAB), a high level advisory body to the Commission that deals with research policy and priorities. Currently, he is the head of the Ethics and Research Integrity Sector in DG Research and Innovation. As head of the sector he has established advanced training courses on research ethics and research integrity for the Commission staff and the ethics research community and has set up the first European system on ethics follow-up and audit.
Establishing a European Research Integrity Community: Current Activities Under Horizon 2020
In Horizon 2020 Research integrity is a cornerstone of scientific excellence and innovation. The legal framework includes strong references to research integrity and ethics inviting all beneficiaries to adhere and respect the highest ethical principles. It is of paramount importance to emphasize that principles of ethics and research integrity are not part of a red tape mechanism; neither an imposition that impends research and innovation. It is rather a driver for high quality research results and improved, socially relevant impact. Horizon 2020 is supporting specific research in this area, targeting the establishment of a research community to include scientists, policy makers, ethics and integrity committees and the supporting structures in the Member States.
Prof Krista Varantola is currently the Chair of the National Advisory Board on Research Integrity in Finland and is a member of the ALLEA workgroup on science and ethics. Chancellor emerita Krista Varantola received her PhD in English from the University of Turku, Finland in 1985. In 1989 she became a professor of English at the University of Tampere. She is a member of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters.
Krista Varantola has held several administrative positions at the university and has served as the Rector and the Chancellor of the University of Tampere. She was the Chair of the Finnish Council of University Rectors in 2008–2009.
She has also served on a number of Finnish and Nordic academic boards, research councils and foundations.
National Guidelines and a European Code of Conduct on Research Integrity: What Are They for?
Why do we need both a European Code of Conduct (CoC) and national guidelines for research integrity (RI)? I will begin by discussing the very recent revision and update of the European CoC and describe how the revision process was conducted and what its aims were. The new code is based on the original ALLEA/ESF code from 2011; it emphasizes the role of education and training in RI, describes the characteristics of good research practices, as well as their violations. The code focuses on responsible research behaviour from the angle of both individual researchers and research performing institutions. The new code is expected to become the reference document on research integrity for the EU Horizon 2020 research programme and thus to apply to all research projects funded in that programme. The code can also be described as a checklist for national or institutional guidelines and may thus lead to “soft harmonization” at the European level.
The national or institutional guidelines have additional functions. They will, for example, describe how allegations of misconduct are handled in the respective national contexts and who is responsible and has the right to issue potential sanctions. In my presentation, I will focus on the recent developments of the Finnish guidelines and our experiences of their applicability. They are firmly based on the idea of self-regulation of science and scholarship, but, to function, self-regulation needs to be monitored. The Finnish National Advisory Board on Research Integrity celebrates its 25th anniversary this year and the guidelines have been updated several times. The Finnish system is unique in the sense that all public research performing institutions are signatories of the guidelines Responsible conduct of research and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in Finland and thus committed to following the principles and procedures of investigation outlined in them.
Dr Daniele Fanelli is a Senior Research Scientist at the Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford (METRICS), Stanford University, where he uses advanced quantitative methods to study the nature of science and contemporary threats to it, such as bias and misconduct. He trained as a naturalist and evolutionary biologist, and has worked at the University of Edinburgh, University of Leuven, London School of Economics and University of Montreal. He is a member of the Research Ethics and Bioethics Advisory Committee of CNR, Italy’s National Research Council, where he has curated the Guidelines for Research Integrity and currently chairs the Research Misconduct subcommittee.
Benefits and Challenges of Defining Misconduct
In the talk I will present recent evidence about the possible effects of scientific misconduct policies on scientists' behaviour. I will then overview the philosophy underlying different policy models, discuss the challenges that each approach is likely to encounter and share my experience of drafting research integrity guidelines for Italy’s CNR National Research Council.
Prof Eric Breit works as a Research Professor at the Work Research Institute, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences. He received his PhD in management and organization studies from Hanken School of Economics, Finland. He is currently involved in the PRINTEGER project where he focuses on the organizational conditions for promoting integrity as an integral dimension of excellence in research. More broadly, he conducts research on organizational and professional change in the public sector, and on organizational misconduct (corruption in particular).
Working with Research Integrity in Organisations
Research integrity is not only important for individuals but also for organizations, i.e. as organizational integrity. However, we currently know relatively little of how integrity is managed in organizations – and even less about how organizational efforts to manage integrity play out on the “work floor”, i.e. in the everyday practice of research. In my presentation, I (a) outline an organizational (on the work floor) perspective on research integrity, and (b) discuss how research integrity can be promoted in and by research organizations.
Prof Margit Sutrop is Professor of Practical Philosophy, Head of interdisciplinary Centre for Ethics, and the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at the University of Tartu.
Prof Sutrop has worked as an independent expert of ethics at the European Commission, performing various tasks such as ethics review, ethics screening, and follow-up of projects. She has been a member of the Advisory Board for Humanities in the 7th Framework Programme of the EC and an ethics advisor of several EC projects in the 7th FP. She is a member of Academia Europaea (London) and a member of the Estonian Council of Bioethics and vice-President of the Clinical Ethics Committee of Tartu University Hospital. She is currently advising several universities and centres for ethics in Germany. Her current research interests comprise research ethics, bioethics, ethics of new technologies, moral and political philosophy, and philosophy of education.
Prof Toivo Maimets, Director of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology and Chairman of the Board of the Centre for Ethics at the University of Tartu
He received his PhD degrees in 1984 (M. Lomonosov University of Moscow) and 1991 (University of Tartu). Since 1992 he has been a Professor of Cell Biology at the same university. His research involves characterization of intracellular signal transduction pathways responsible for cell cycle regulation, DNA damage control and tumorigenesis. Professor Maimets has been a member of several international research organisations and advisory groups, including European Commission Research, Innovation and Science High-level Expert Group (RISE), and many more.
Dr Siret Rutiku, Head of the Department of Research Funding, Estonian Research Council
Siret Rutiku received her PhD degree in 2000 in German language and literature. Her main research topics have been theological terminology, hymnology and German literature, and as of late, aspects of curriculum development.
Dr Andres Soosaar, Academic Secretary, University of Tartu
Andres Soosaar has taught medical ethics at the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology, and in USA NIH and Vilnius University international research ethics training programme. He has published a textbook on medical ethics and several papers on regulations of ethics of medical research and history. He has been a member of the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tartu and Estonian Council of Bioethics.
Prof Margus Lopp, Member of the Board of Governors of the Tallinn University of Technology
Margus Lopp graduated from the University of Tartu in 1973 and received his PhD in 1981 from the Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences. Currently he is the Professor of Organic Chemistry at the Tallinn University of Technology, member of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, member of the Board of Governors of the Tallinn University of Technology, leader of the research group of organic synthesis at the Center of Excellence in Molecular Cell Engineering, principal investigator of the IUT project “Directed asymmetric catalytic synthesis: an integrated approach.”
Prof Ülle Jaakma, Vice Rector for Research, Estonian University of Life Sciences
Ülle Jaakma’s field of research is reproductive biotechnology; she has researched issues of fertility, in vitro embryo production and animal cloning. She has issues concerning research integrity both as a researcher and an administrator.
Prof Margus Pärtlas, Vice Rector for Academic Affairs and Research, Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre
Margus Pärtlas, Professor of Music Theory, has been the Vice Rector for Academic Affairs and Research in the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre since 2003. He has been the chairman of the Estonian Society of Musicology and the organiser of the International Conferences on Music Theory in Tallinn. His research has focused on the issues of musical form and the music of Eduard Tubin.
Prof Katrin Niglas, Vice Rector for Research, Tallinn University
Katrin Niglas has been the Vice Rector for Research in the Tallinn University since 2011. She received her MPhil from the University of Cambridge and PhD from the Tallinn University in 2004. K. Niglas has been the expert of methodology and data analysis in many research projects in various fields of social sciences and she continues to teach these subjects on doctoral level. She is a member of editorial board of international journals Journal of Mixed Methods Research and International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches.